盘点各种版本的万圣节传统和起源

时间:2021-01-20 19:59:28

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盘点各种版本的万圣节传统和起源

1. CARVING HALLOWEEN JACK-O'-LANTERNS

雕刻万圣节南瓜灯

Jack-O'-Lanterns, which originated in Ireland using turnips instead ofpumpkins, are supposedly based on a legend about a man named Stingy Jack whorepeatedly trapped the Devil and only let him go on the condition that Jackwould never go to Hell. When he died, however, Jack learned that Heaven didn'treally want his soul either, so he was condemned to wander the Earth as a ghostfor all eternity. The Devil gave Jack a lump of burning coal in a carved-outturnip to light his way. Eventually, locals began carving frightening faces intotheir own gourds to scare off evil spirits.

南瓜灯起源于爱尔兰,最开始是由萝卜雕的,不是南瓜。传说有个绰号叫“吝啬鬼杰克”的男人屡次捉住魔鬼,并且要魔鬼允诺永远不会让他下地狱才肯放掉魔鬼。然而,他去世时才知道,天堂也不愿意接受他的灵魂,所以他只能做孤魂野鬼,永远在人间游荡。魔鬼给了杰克一个装有燃煤的雕刻萝卜作为照明的灯笼。久而久之,当地人也开始在他们的南瓜上雕刻狰狞的面容,以驱赶恶灵。

2. SEEING GHOSTS

幽灵出没

Celtic people believed that during the festival Samhain, which marked thetransition to the new year at the end of the harvest and beginning of thewinter, spirits walked the Earth. Later, the introduction of All Souls Day onNovember 2 by Christian missionaries perpetuated the idea of a mingling betweenthe living and the dead around the same time of year.

凯尔特人认为,在萨温节期间,幽灵便在人间徘徊。萨温节标志着新的一年的开始(在古凯尔特人的信仰里,新的一年于11月1日开始)和收获季到冬天的过渡。之后,基督教传教士在11月2号设立了万灵节,宣扬称生者和死者会在一年的这个时间相聚。

3. WEARING SCARY COSTUMES

穿吓人的衣服

With all these ghosts wandering around the Earth during Samhain, the Celtshad to get creative to avoid being terrorized by evil spirits. To fake out theghosts, people would don disguises so they would be mistaken for spiritsthemselves and left alone.

传说萨温节期间有许多可怕的幽灵游荡人间,凯尔特人必须巧妙设法避开它们。为了瞒过恶灵,人们会将自己打扮成幽灵的样子,这样幽灵便会误以为对方是同类而离开。

4. GOING TRICK-OR-TREATING, THE PAGAN WAY

非基督教版本的“不给糖就捣蛋”

There is a lot of debate around the origins of trick-or-treating. Onetheory proposes that during Samhain, Celtic people would leave out food toplacate the souls and ghosts and spirits traveling the Earth that night.Eventually, people began dressing up as these otherworldly beings in exchangefor similar offerings of food and drink.

关于“不给糖就捣蛋”传统的来源有很多争议,其中一种说法是,凯尔特人在萨温节期间会摆出食物来安抚那天夜里在人间徘徊的亡灵和鬼神。后来,人们也开始打扮成亡灵的样子,来换取食物和饮料。

5. GOING TRICK-OR-TREATING, THE SCOTTISH WAY

苏格兰版本的“不给糖就捣蛋”

Other researchers speculate that the candy bonanza stems from the Scottishpractice of guising, itself a secular version of souling. In the Middle Ages,soulers, usually children and poor adults, would go to local homes and collectfood or money in return for prayers said for the dead on All Souls' Day. Guisersditched the prayers in favor of non-religious performances like jokes, songs, orother "tricks".

还有些学者猜测这一传统来源于苏格兰的化装习俗——将自己装扮成世俗的幽灵。在中世纪时期,儿童和贫穷的成人通常会装扮成幽灵,到本地人的家里乞求食物或钱,并以在万灵节为死者祈祷作为回报。随着时间流逝,化装者不再用祈祷,而是用笑话、歌曲或其他“把戏”等非宗教表演作为回报。

6. GOING TRICK-OR-TREATING, THE AMERICAN WAY

美国版本的“不给糖就捣蛋”

Some sources argue that our modern trick-or-treating stems frombelsnickling, a tradition in German-American communities where children woulddress in costume and then call on their neighbors to see if the adults couldguess the identities of the disguised guests. In one version of the practice,the children were rewarded with food or other treats if no one could identifythem.

一些来源指出,现代的“不给糖就捣蛋”来源于德裔美国人社区的一个名叫“贝斯尼克”的传统。孩子们化装好,然后去拜访邻居,看他们能否猜出装扮后的客人是谁。在其中一个版本的习俗中,如果没被认出来,这个孩子就可以得到食物或者其他奖励。

7. GETTING SPOOKED BY BLACK CATS

不祥的黑猫

The association of black cats and spookiness actually dates all the wayback to the Middle Ages, when these dark kitties were considered a symbol of theDevil. It didn't help the felines' reputations when, centuries later, accusedwitches were often found to have cats, especially black ones, as companions.People started believing that the cats were a witch's "familiar"—animals thatgave them an assist with their dark magic—and the two have been linked eversince.

黑猫和幽灵的联系可以追溯到中世纪,当时黑色的小猫被视为魔鬼的象征。即使在几个世纪以后,黑猫的名声也没有好转,因为被指控为巫婆的人通常都有猫作伴,特别是黑猫。人们开始相信猫是巫婆“亲密”的伙伴,并能助长她们的黑魔法。自此之后两者便常常被联系在一起。

8. BOBBING FOR APPLES

咬苹果游戏

This game traces its origins to a courting ritual that was part of a Romanfestival honoring Pomona, the goddess of agriculture and abundance. Multiplevariations existed, but the gist was that young men and women would be able toforetell their future relationships based on the game. When the Romans conqueredthe British Isles, the Pomona festival was blended with the similarly timedSamhain, a precursor to Halloween.

咬苹果游戏的起源可以追溯到一个求爱仪式。它是罗马节日的一部分,用来纪念农业和丰饶女神波莫娜。这个游戏有多种变化,但主旨在于年轻男女能够根据游戏来预测他们未来的关系。罗马人征服不列颠群岛时,波莫纳节与几乎同时期的萨温节(万圣节的前身)融合在一起。

9. DECORATING WITH BLACK AND ORANGE

用黑色和橙色作为装饰主色调

The classic Halloween colors can also trace their origins back to theCeltic festival Samhain. Black represented the "death" of summer while orange isemblematic of the autumn harvest season.

这两个经典的万圣节颜色也可以追溯到凯尔特人的萨温节。黑色象征着夏天的“死亡”,而橙色则象征着秋收季节。

10. PLAYING PRANKS

玩恶作剧

As a phenomenon that often varies by region, the pre-Halloween tradition,also known as "Devil's Night", is credited with a different origin depending onwhom you ask. Some sources say that pranks were originally part of May Daycelebrations. But Samhain, and eventually All Souls Day, seem to have includedgood-natured mischief. When Scottish and Irish immigrants came to America, theybrought along the tradition of celebrating Mischief Night as part of Halloween,which was great for candy-fueled pranksters.

万圣节前的恶作剧传统也被称为“魔鬼之夜”,经常因地而异。不同的人对它的起源有着不同的回答。有一些来源称,恶作剧原本是五一劳动节庆祝活动的一部分。但是萨温节,以及后来的万灵节,似乎就已经包含了善意的恶作剧。苏格兰和爱尔兰移民来到美国,他们也带来了在万圣节前夕庆祝“恶作剧之夜”的传统,这对于酷爱糖果的恶作剧者来说太棒了。

11. LIGHTING CANDLES AND BONFIRES

点燃蜡烛和篝火

These days, candles are more likely than towering traditional bonfires, butfor much of the early history of Halloween, open flames were integral inlighting the way for souls seeking the afterlife.

如今,在万圣节庆祝活动中,人们更有可能点燃蜡烛而不是高耸的传统篝火。但在万圣节的早期历史中,明火在为寻求来世的灵魂照亮道路方面是不可或缺的。

12. EATING CANDY APPLES

吃糖苹果

People have been coating fruit in sugar syrups as a means of preservationfor centuries. Since the development of the Roman festival of Pomona, thegoddess often represented by and associated with apples, the fruit has had aplace in harvest celebrations. But the first mention of candy apples being givenout at Halloween didn't occur until the 1950s.

几个世纪以来,人们一直将水果裹在糖浆中保存。随着罗马波莫纳节的发展,苹果经常作为女神波莫纳的代表,与之联系在一起,因此苹果在丰收庆典中也占有一席之地。但直到20世纪50年代,才首次提到在万圣节时赠送糖苹果。

13. SPOTTING BATS

蝙蝠

It's likely that bats were present at the earliest celebrations ofproto-Halloween, not just symbolically but literally. As part of Samhain, theCelts lit large bonfires, which attracted insects. The insects, in turn,attracted bats, which soon became associated with the festival. Medievalfolklore expanded upon the spooky connotation of bats with a number ofsuperstitions built around the idea that bats were the harbingers of death.

蝙蝠很可能出现在最早的万圣节庆祝活动中,这种说法不仅是象征性的,而且有事实佐证。作为萨温节的一部分,凯尔特人点燃篝火来吸引昆虫。这些昆虫反过来又吸引了蝙蝠,因此蝙蝠与萨温节很快联系在一起。中世纪的民间传说扩展了蝙蝠令人毛骨悚然的内涵,围绕着蝙蝠是死亡来临的前兆存在着许多迷信说法。

14. GORGING ON CANDY

吃糖果

The act of going door-to-door for handouts has long been a part ofHalloween celebrations. But until the middle of the 20th century, the "treats"kids received were not necessarily candy. Toys, coins, fruit, and nuts were justas likely to be given out. The rise in the popularity of trick-or-treating inthe 1950s inspired candy companies to make a marketing push with small,individually wrapped confections. People obliged out of convenience, but candydidn't dominate at the exclusion of all other treats until parents startedfearing anything unwrapped in the 1970s.

挨家挨户地“讨糖果”一直是万圣节庆祝活动的一部分。但在20世纪中叶前,孩子们得到的“款待”不一定是糖果,也有可能得到玩具、硬币、水果和坚果。20世纪50年代,“不给糖就捣蛋”活动的兴起,促使糖果公司纷纷推出独立包装的小糖果。人们出于便利才考虑购买这种小糖果。但直到20世纪70年代,家长们开始担心任何未经包装的东西有卫生隐患,糖果才开始在这些款待物中占据主导地位。

15. MUNCHING ON CANDY CORN

玉米糖

According to some stories, a candymaker at the Wunderlee Candy Company inPhiladelphia invented the revolutionary tri-color candy in the 1880s. The treatsdidn't become a widespread phenomenon until another company brought the candy tothe masses in 1898. At the time, candy corn was called Chicken Feed and sold inboxes with the slogan "Something worth crowing for." Originally just autumnalcandy because of corn's association with harvest time, candy corn becameHalloween-specific when trick-or-treating rose to prominence in the US in the1950s.

根据一些故事的说法,费城文德利糖果公司的一位糖果制造商在19世纪80年代发明了革命性的三色糖果。但直到1898年另一家公司将这种糖果推向大众,它才风靡起来。当时,玉米糖被称为“鸡饲料”,装在盒子里出售,广告语是“值得为之欢呼的东西”。最初玉米糖只是秋天的糖果,因为玉米与收获季节有关。在20世纪50年代,随着“不给糖就捣蛋”活动在美国的兴起,玉米糖成为了万圣节专属糖果。

为什么万圣节要吃糖果?

On October 31, hordes of children armed with Jack-o'-lantern-shaped bucketsand pillow cases will take to the streets in search of sugar. Trick-or-treatingfor candy is synonymous with Halloween, but the tradition had to go through acenturies-long evolution to arrive at the place it is today. So how did theholiday become an opportunity for kids to get free sweets? You can blame pagans,Catholics, and candy companies.

10月31日,成群的孩子们会涌到大街上,带着南瓜形状的篮子和枕套找糖吃。作为万圣节的代名词,“不给糖就捣蛋”这一传统经历了数百年才演变成今天这个样子。那么这个节日是怎么变成孩子们获得免费糖果的机会呢?你可以将其归咎于异教徒、天主教徒和糖果公司。

Historians agree that a Celtic autumn festival called Samhain was theprecursor to modern Halloween. Samhain was a time to celebrate the last harvestof the year and the approach of the winter season. It was also a festival forhonoring the dead. One way Celtics may have appeased the spirits they believedstill walked the Earth was by leaving treats on their doorsteps.

历史学家们一致认为,凯尔特人庆祝秋收的萨温节是现代万圣节的前身。萨温节是庆祝一年中最后一次收获的时节,也是迎接冬天到来的节日。萨温节还是纪念死者的节日。凯尔特人安抚那些依然在世间徘徊的幽灵的方式之一可能就是在自己的门口留下吃食。

When Catholics infiltrated Ireland in the 1st century CE, they rebrandedmany pagan holidays to fit their religion. November 1 became the "feasts of AllSaints and All Souls," and the day before it was dubbed "All-Hallows'-Eve." Thenew holidays looked a lot different from the original Celtic festival, but manytraditions stuck around, including the practice of honoring the dead with food.The food of choice for Christians became "soul cakes," small pastries usuallybaked with expensive ingredients and spices like currants and saffron.

公元1世纪天主教徒入侵爱尔兰时,开始改造许多异教徒的节日,使其适应他们的宗教。11月1日成了万灵节,万灵节前夕被称为“万圣节前夜”。这一新节日和凯尔特人原来的节日大不相同,但凯尔特人的许多传统保留了下来,包括用食物来纪念逝者的行为。基督教徒选择的节日食物被叫作“灵魂蛋糕”,这是一种用昂贵的配料和红醋栗、藏红花等调料烤成的小点心。

Instead of leaving them outside for passing ghosts, soul cakes weredistributed to beggars who went door-to-door promising to pray for souls of thedeceased in exchange for something to eat. Sometimes they wore costumes to honorthe saints—something pagans originally did to avoid being harassed by evilspirits. The ritual, known as souling, is believed to have planted the seeds formodern-day trick-or-treating.

基督教徒没有把“灵魂蛋糕”放在门口供鬼魂享用,而是分发给挨家挨户乞讨的人,这些乞丐承诺为逝者的灵魂祷告,以换取吃食。有时候乞丐们还会穿上纪念圣人的戏服——最初异教徒就是穿上这种服装来避免被恶灵纠缠。据认为,这一名为“索灵”的仪式为现代的“不给糖就捣蛋”埋下了种子。

Souling didn't survive the holiday's migration from Europe to the UnitedStates. In America, the first Halloween celebrations were a way to mark theend-of-year harvest season, and the food that was served mainly consisted ofhomemade seasonal treats like caramel apples and mixed nuts. There were no soulcakes—or candies, for that matter—to be found.

在欧洲的节日向美国迁徙时,“索灵”风俗没有留存下来。在美国,最初的万圣节庆祝活动是为了纪念岁末的收获季节,节日食物主要是自制的应季美食,比如焦糖苹果和什锦坚果。那时候万圣节没有灵魂蛋糕,也没有糖果。

It wasn't until the 1950s that trick-or-treating gained popularity in theUS. Following the Great Depression and World War II, the suburbs were booming,and people were looking for excuses to have fun and get to know their neighbors.The old practice of souling was resurrected and made into an excuse for kids todress up in costumes and roam their neighborhoods. Common trick-or-treatofferings included nuts, coins, and homemade baked goods ("treats" that mostkids would turn their noses up at today).

直到20世纪50年代,“不给糖就捣蛋”才在美国风靡起来。大萧条和二战结束后,美国郊区开始繁荣起来,人们想找个由头乐一乐并结识邻居。于是,“索灵”的老习俗就复兴了,并让孩子们有借口化装打扮,在街区游荡。给“捣蛋鬼”准备的东西通常包括坚果、硬币和自制的烘焙食品,今天的大多数孩子恐怕都看不上这些东西。

That changed when the candy companies got their hands on the holiday. Theyhad already convinced consumers that they needed candy on Christmas and Easter,and they were looking for an equally lucrative opportunity to market candy inthe fall. The new practice of trick-or-treating was almost too good to be true.Manufacturers downsized candies into smaller, bite-sized packages and beganmarketing them as treats for Halloween. Adults were grateful to have aconvenient alternative to baking, kids loved the sweet treats, and the candycompanies made billions.

后来糖果公司把手伸向了这一节日,情况就发生了改变。糖果商已经让消费者相信,他们需要在圣诞节和复活节吃糖果,于是他们开始寻找一个在秋天营销糖果的同样有利可图的良机。“不给糖就捣蛋”的新风俗对他们而言简直是天赐的好运。制造商缩小了糖果包装,将一口一个的小糖果独立包装,并将其作为万圣节款待食品来推销。成年人很庆幸可以买到这么方便的零食而不用再亲手烘焙,孩子们喜欢这些糖果的味道,糖果公司也因此大赚特赚。

Today, it's hard to imagine Halloween without Skittles, chocolate bars, andthe perennial candy corn debates. But when you're digging through a bag or bowlof Halloween candy this October, remember that you could have been having eatingsoul cakes instead.

时至今日,已经难以想象没有彩虹糖、巧克力棒和长年备受争议的玉米糖的万圣节。但是今年十月,当你捧着一袋或一碗万圣节糖果大吃的时候,别忘了你原本可能吃的是“灵魂蛋糕”。


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